The Basic Process of PCB Assembly

PCBPCBs or printed circuit boards have paved the way for enjoying highly advanced technologies and devices. These compact circuit boards allow for high frequency, high speed electronic processing necessary in devices such as computers and wireless communications. Over the years, newer materials have been developed to use in PCB assembly. The process remains basically unchanged through the years since the PCB was first developed in the 1950s. A few touch ups were added to the process as newer materials were incorporated to improve PCB design and function.

PCB Assembly Process

Modern PCBs are manufactured using the SMT or surface mount technology. This process follows the following process:

• Applying solder paste

This is a paste material composed of a mix of small solder grains and flux. This paste is applied on the circuit board in a process very much like a printing process.

The solder paste needs to be applied on the board surface before the components are added. It is applied on the surface of the board where the solder is to be applied later on in the process. These areas are typically the component pads. To apply, a solder screen is used.

The solder screen is prepared by matching it to the design of the desired printed circuit board. It is then placed directly on the board surface. A runner is then moved across the solder screen. As the runner is moved, a small amount of solder paste is squeezed onto the board through the screen. The solder paste squeezed out only passes through the screens that matches the designated position of the solder pads (according to the printed circuit board design).

Hence, the solder paste is only applied on the solder pads and not anywhere else on the board surface. It is very important that the amount of solder placed on the solder pads is carefully controlled. This is to ensure that the joints have just the right amount of solder in them.

• Process of pick and place

After applying the solder paste, the board is subjected to the pick and place process. The board is placed on a machine that contains reels of PCB components. As the board passes through, the machine picks the right components off the reels and attaches them in the designated positions on the board. The components are held into place from the tension produced by the solder paste. The tension is enough to keep the components in place, as long as the board is not shaken.

Printed Circute bord

Sometimes, the machines used for the pick and place process add glue in small dots to further secure the components into the board. This can only be done if the board is to be subjected to wave soldering. Adding glue can be a disadvantage if repairs may become necessary later in the process.

The pick and place machine derives the information on where to place the components from the programmed design of the printed circuit board.

• Soldering

The board is then passed through a soldering machine. This part of the PCB assembly process will solder the components in place. Some machine use a wave soldering system, but this is fairly uncommon with the SMT.

• Inspection

After the soldering process, the board is inspected. An automatic optical inspection is used rather than annual inspection of the soldered boards. Manual inspection is not a good idea if there are hundreds of manufactured boards. Inspection machines are designed to check the boards for poor joints, wrong components and misplaced components.

• Testing

Quick turn PCB assembly requires testing for function before they are packaged and shipped. Testing includes proper electronic flow, properly placed components and if components overheat and detach while in use.

Author Bio
 Quick turn PCB assembly

The Significance Of Custom Coins In The Past And The Present

When you’ve first heard of custom challenge coins, you probably had no idea what they were for. The combination of words sounds weird. So researching about them seemed a good idea – and that’s why you’ve stumbled upon this article. Read on and learn about these magnificent pieces. Surely, you won’t be disappointed.

Following Are The Significance Of Custom Coins:

Custom CoinCustom challenge coins are special coins that are given to members of many organizations worldwide. They signify belongingness to an exclusive group. They are like a password that allows a member inside a circle of like-minded people. The giving of such coins started in World War I, among members of the army and other men in uniform. The value of such practice was affirmed when a soldier was saved from being executed by his own squadron, when he showed them his custom coin when challenged about his identity. From then on, many groups adapted the practice of custom coins.

At present, custom coins are still issued by companies to their valued members. Being given such is an honor, and a responsibility. One has to carry with him the custom coin at all times because randomly challenging members to show their coin is a practice that many organizations still do. Being ready shows high loyalty to the group and saves the one challenged from certain undesirable consequences.

Aside from being a sign of belongingness, custom challenge coins also have other importance. These coins are made of high-quality materials as they stand for the organizations they represent. Their aesthetic quality makes them beautiful keepsakes that are made to last, even outlive their owners. The descendants of the owner could keep the coins for what they stand for – a life well-lived as a part of an exclusive organization.

Prominent people also seem to collect such custom coins

Politicians in high office and successful businessmen are usually the ones with most custom challenge coins. It is because they are the most active in civic affairs and earn the respect of many organizations. These groups declare them as honorary members because of their valuable works for the community. Yes, custom coins can also signify a person’s respectability. They are given to the respectable few who do not seek membership from exclusive groups, yet are offered the chance. They are not required to be regularly present in organizational affairs, though. They are just welcome anytime they desire to join the circle of these people.


Custom coins are high-quality and are expensive to make, which makes a business out of them as a lucrative one. Many pawnshops and businesses that specialize in organizational keepsakes deal with organizations to make them their official suppliers of custom coins. Bagging such deals could provide a handsome profit, especially if the organizational operates worldwide. On the other hand, these businesses also have the responsibility to produce the best version of the organizations’ custom coins. These coins carry their emblem and represent their group so they should be presentable, flawless even if that is possible.

Many people do not truly understand and appreciate the practice of giving custom challenge coins. This could mean that the custom should be done by more companies in order to inform many other people of its existence and beauty. Exclusivity is not the only significance of receiving a custom coin from one’s group. It also shows a high level of camaraderie that is signified by the coin. Individuals should strive to attain the qualifications in order to belong to a group and be given a custom coin. Let the coins be your standard of practice, motivating you to be good enough for such a keepsake.

At challengecoins4less, you can get the ideas for design your own custom coin. Here we provide free quotesand art request, fill out all the form,we will send all information via email.

Things to Remember When Purchasing Custom Embroidered Patches in Bulk

In most cases, it is better to purchase custom embroidered patches in bulk. One of the best advantages of doing so is being able to opt out of the hassle. You will not have to be troubled with placing orders again and again each time you will need more of the same product with the same design. It is best to simply place a bulk order if you are on the same situation. However, there are a few things to remember before purchasing custom patches in bulk.

Determine the Price of Each Patch

Calculating the prices of each embroidered patch in your bulk order is important especially if you are planning to outsource them. Of course, you would want to have them at the lowest cost possible. There are two ways to do so. You can either check the detailed pricing we have on our site or simply give us a call or email to get a free quote. Our will handle your inquiries. There is no need to prepare a photo of the design that you want us to apply on your custom embroidered patches. The requirement when it comes to the design is simple and that is just to know the things you want to be placed on your patches and how you want your message to be relayed.



The design of the embroidered patches is one of the important things that can affect the prices of your bulk orders. This is the reason why you have to decide how you want them to look like ahead of time so you can provide us specific details. We can provide you suggestions on how to improve the designs according to the purpose of the patches and to your budget. We can easily adjust certain aspects to meet your requirements.

Add-on prices

Custom patches have certain features that have various customization options. Their border is one of the aspects that are commonly modified according to the discretion of our clients. There are lots of border types to choose from and each of them can significantly affect the looks of your patches.Different border types vary when it comes to pricing. This is one of the things to consider when choosing which one to apply.

There are also patches that have many colors. We continually receive these kinds of orders. You should know though that the number of colors usually offered by manufacturers is just limited. If your designs have more colors than the limit, then you should opt to buy those additional thread colors since they will only be available as an add-on. In most cases, it is better to apply a limited number of colors to be certain that your patches will be clear and clean. The goal is not only to create a design that is noticeable but one that can also convey the messages of the patches with ease.

The backings of the patches you are planning to purchase are also a feature that you actually have lots of customization options.The standard options that are usually given for free are the adhesive backing and the no backing option. If you opt to order patches with no backings, you simply have to sew them onto the garments. The adhesive or iron on backing can provide a more easy way of attachment. However, the adhesives provided on this backing option are commonly weak and can only last for a few washes. There is a stronger type of adhesive though but if you opt for it, it will be considered as an add-on. There are more backings available on our store.

Custom Embroidered Patches

Add-ons can increase the prices of each embroidered patch just a bit. However, if you are planning to purchase in bulk, this cost will spike up on the total prices of your bulk orders. This is the reason why it is important to be certain that the add-ons you are planning to apply to your custom embroidered patches will not cause the prices of your bulk orders to propel higher than your budget.

Bulk buying can provide lots of advantages and can help save time, money and effort. This is the reason why lots of people opt to purchase in bulk. It is not a disadvantage to have many add-ons on your orders. Keep in mind that they are essential to improve the designs of your patches.

There is no need to worry about getting higher than your budget though if you opt to purchase from us since we can provide you a free quote before you place your orders. This can help both of us to save time and effort. You can also calculate the cost of your orders by your own through the pricing table we have on our official website. Contact us today so you can check our sample custom embroidered patches.

Author Bio

We Patches4less are the one best custom patches provider. If you want to purchase iron on patches then you can contact to us.

Importance Of Changing The Golf Grips

An amateur golfer might not give much attention to his golf grips, but a professional golfer always makes sure that his grips are in top shape. The importance of attaining the right feel when gripping or holding the golf club should not be overlooked. A golfer should not likewise ignore the significance of the role of the grips.

If you are an amateur golfer and you intend to take your game a notch higher, then you need to make sure that the things you use when playing golf are always in tip top shape. Don’t always blame the weather or your somewhat lousy form for losing the game, the culprit could be your negligence.

The Value of a Golf Grip

Before you learn how to swing a club, you need to know the proper way to hold the club first. Without the right grip, it would be impossible to deliver consistent shots.

Golf Clubs

The right golf grip allows you to maintain control over your golf club. It allows your hands to stay in the same position and not to slip down as you deliver your swing. Also, the right golf grips won’t send your club flying instead of the ball.

The correct and properly working grip can help you deliver the ball to your target point or spot. The professional and amateur golfers mostly use overlapping and interlocking grips. The overlapping grip type allows the little finger of your dominant hand to fit securely between the middle and index fingers of the other hand when you grip the club. The interlocking grip type involves locking the little finger of the dominant hand and the index of the other hand.

Your grip can affect the trajectory of the ball. It is important to securely hold the club and make sure that your hands will maintain the position as you swing the club. A golf grip that is not properly secured won’t be able to give you the ease and comfort you need when you grip or hold your club.

Before the game starts, it is important to give yourself ample time to check that your golf equipment and accessories are working properly. It is also advisable to bring extra spikes or golf shoes, and golf grips. You can get some quality golf supplies from If you are a novice golfer with a limited funding, then you should visit the mentioned site where you can get quality merchandise at affordable price.

The Significance of Re-Griping

A serious golfer always takes care of his golf equipment. He makes sure that his golf grips are working perfectly. The grips will eventually lose their efficiency and efficacy after so many games. In a course of a year, most tour pros re-grip their clubs between 3 and 4 times, or more. The re-gripping can help maintain the comfort that the pros want when holding their clubs.

When you prepare yourself for a game, you not only prepare yourself but your golf clubs as well. Dirt, sweat, and the normal wear and tear of a golf grip can affect the quality of your swing. Don’t expect to deliver consistent swing if your golf grip causes your hands to slip.

If you don’t feel comfortable in holding your club, then it’s time to re-grip your club.You also need to check your other clubs that you don’t regularly use. The dirt will still seep through the golf grip and render it ineffective.

Callaway Golf

There are times when you need to re-grip your newly bought golf club. The clubs usually come with standard-sized grips, which may not be suitable to the size of your hands. When you re-grip it, choose the texture, material, color, design, and fit that you find comfortable.

Best Time to Re-Grip

It is advisable to replace your golf grip every 30 to 40 rounds, especially if you spend a considerable amount of practice time. However, if you feel or see cracks, shiny patches, smooth surface, and other unfavorable signs, it is time to re-grip your club even though you are yet to complete your 30 rounds.

If there’s a change in weather and your current golf grip is not suitable for such weather, you need to re-grip your golf club or suffer a damaging consequence.

Your golf grips are as important as your golf equipment. Check them regularly and replace them when needed.

Rockbottomgolf offers these items at a highly discounted price and comes with free shipping service. It is also advisable to bring extra spikes or golf shoes, and golf grips.

Fire Up Your Employee’s Determination By Listening To A Fun And Relatable Motivational Speaker

When the going gets tough, most people wilt under the stress and pressure. They lose the drive to achieve their dreams. What they need is someone to push them and give them the fire to fight for their dreams. They need someone to show them their potential and what they can achieve. That someone must motivate them to push through the hard times and aim high. This is where we come in.

We have a motivational speaker who has an infectious enthusiasm and positivity. His personality is the ultimate combination of professionalism, humor and motivation. People who get the chance to listen to him will find a renewed inner fire that will surely improve their outlook. This is a good news for employers as this will translate to a more productive workforce.

Our main priority is to provide a motivational speaker who aims to provide corporate events with facts that will improve employees’ outlook. These facts are all backed by research with proven results.

He will discuss the different approaches of various successful figures to shed light on what people can change and improve upon.

While he maintains professionalism throughout his talks, he does not let his listeners get bored. His talks are laced with jokes derived around his topics. He keeps it upbeat to maintain the audience’s interest. He makes sure that his audience will remember key parts of the talk by making it revolve around fun while maintaining an emphasis on business.

His talks doesn’t focus on the “best practices” alone. He wants to maximize the opportunities for success by providing breakthrough strategies. He shares the secrets of successful people and companies then compare it with the client’s business approach. By doing so, the listeners can adapt what they learn to stay motivated and be more productive.

Keynote speakerOur speaker also makes his talks in accordance to the client’s needs and goals. This makes each talk unique and personalized. His ability to connect to each of his audience makes him a favorite in the motivational talk industry. The lighthearted environment ensures that after listening to him, all you will feel is motivation, determination and inspiration.

We handled talks for a lot of corporations. Big and small corporations agree that our speaker is effective. He connects to his audience by speaking about situations that they can relate about. He never strays from the objectives and always look to use unique techniques to keep the crowd energized and engaged. He never misses a beat and keeps the information flowing.

You will be astounded with the amount of information you can learn from our speaker. He maximizes each minute of the time he is given. His energy never falls off either. He remains as lively from start to finish. To top it all off, you will never fill overwhelmed because he paces the talk so efficiently.

The audience will learn about being a great leader, how to handle change within the company, how to have a great relationship among employees and many more. These are all essential aspects that contribute to a successful and fun working environment. Success and fun should always be hand in hand. Once the balance between these two is broken then the employees will eventually lose motivation that will result to a drop in productivity. Our motivational speaker will make sure that your company will learn to maintain a balance between professionalism and fun.

There is no short cuts to success. If you choose to cut corners to achieve what you want, you will crash and burn eventually. Pushing your employees too hard will make them dread going to work. Having them work in an uptight environment may work for a few months but in time, you will see a decline in morale and productivity. It is important to understand what your employees want and need.

We can help you see where you can improve on by giving us your set of goals.

Our motivational speaker will plan a fun yet goal-oriented talk, which aims to educate and inspire your employees to commit to change. By doing so, everybody in your company wins. Your employees are motivated and happy, thereby equating to higher productivity and better end results.

Our motivational speaker will rock your events, leaving the audience in awe. He prides himself by providing raw emotions that people can relate to. The right combination of entertainment and business will never grow tedious during the length of the talk. His methods have been tried and tested throughout the years and are backed by testimonials from satisfied clients. We want your employees to have fun at work.

Motivational speaker

Motivation is a complex thing. It comes from the combination of happiness, determination and passion for what you are trying to achieve. Having your employees accept and believe in your vision is the number one way to keep their motivation going.

Motivational speaker get greatly critical experience and can develop their capacities and production their reputation, which is the thing that every learner speaker needs.

Defending the Fort: Hiring a Foreclosure Attorney

LawThe home is probably the most important tangible investment that a person will ever make in his life. More than just a symbol of independence, the home is testament to the fact that he can put a roof to his own head. This place will bear witness to the most important moments of his life. Mementos of different milestones are kept in this abode to serve as proof of his achievements. Most importantly, a home is where a person starts a family. A threat to the house, hence, is a threat to the family.

In the same way that not all, if any, families have a chest of gold hidden in their coffers, not all families can afford to pay for a house in full. Fortunately, there are other options that people can take when purchasing a house. One of which is getting a loan from a reputable banking institution. Banks will then check if a person has enough monthly income to pay for loan amortizations. Aside from income, the banks will check whether a person is a good creditor by looking at his credit history. Upon approval, banks will require an asset to serve as collateral for the loan.

Typically, borrowers are updated with their initial payments for the monthly amortization but sometimes due to unstable economy, rainy days come unannounced. As a result, several companies downsize, consequentially resulting to mass layoffs if only to survive. As fate would have it, some borrowers are forced out of their job, making them unable to pay their amortization dues.

Threat of Foreclosure (in Long Island, New York)

Like a thief in the night, foreclosures in New York do not necessitate sending a notice. The mortgage contract usually contains the amount of time after a payment is due, when the lending institution can start to file a case for foreclosure. The court will, however, send a subpoena asking for the borrower’s presence in court. Unless, the lending institution sent an advance notice, this is the first time the borrower is notified of a threat of foreclosure.

Long Island has seen myriads of unique foreclosure cases filed by banks and other lending institutions. What many borrowers fail to realize is that timing is essential if they still want to defend their property. The first course of action that should be taken is hiring a dependable Long island foreclosure lawyer. After receipt of subpoena, the borrower is given, at most, 20 days to respond or appear before the court. This window of opportunity must be maximized by not only compiling pertinent documents, but to initiate a dialogue with the lending institution to restructure the loan that will enable the borrower to pay his dues in terms compatible with his current income.

Failure to give a swift and aggressive defense allows the court to rule in favor of the lending institution prompting the sale of the mortgaged property.

Building a Sound Defense

LawWithout the help of a competent Long island foreclosure lawyer, it is almost impossible to build a sound defense strategy. Most banks have the luxury of being represented by a good crop of legal minds in the country so the only way to fortify the defense is by having equally good legal experts man the fort. Their expertise makes them capable of handling the intricacies of the ensuing legal battle.

Involving a Long island foreclosure lawyer early on can spell the difference between coming out of the scuffle victorious or being crushed to pieces. There are existing alternatives to foreclosure and several channels for recourse. Only an experienced Long island foreclosure lawyer can determine which strategy can better protect the house and hence, the family.